Picasso, Pablo Ruiz y(1881-1973), Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, draughtsman, designer, and ceramicist who spent most of his career in France. He was the most famous and prolific artist of the 20th century and exercised enormous influence on his contemporaries.

II. Early Life and Work

Picasso was born in Málaga on October 25, 1881, the first child of a middle-class family. His father José Ruiz Blasco was a mediocre painter who earned his living as a teacher of drawing. Like many Spaniards, Picasso took his mother's family name as his surname.

Picasso showed artistic talent at an early age. His first surviving drawings were done when he was nine. By his early teens, it was clear that he was exceptionally gifted. In 1895 his family had moved to Barcelona, and from 1896 to 1897 he studied at the School of Fine Arts there. His large academic canvas Science and Charity(1897, Museo Picasso, Barcelona), depicting a doctor, a nun, and a child at a sick woman's bedside, won a gold medal when it was exhibited in Málaga. He then spent a few months at the Academy of Fine Arts in Madrid, but by this time—aged only 16—he already had his own studio in Barcelona and was eagerly experimenting with a variety of styles.

III. The Blue Period

In 1900 Picasso made his first visit to Paris, the goal of every ambitious artist, and for the next four years he divided his time between there and Barcelona. He found the bohemian street-life of Paris fascinating, and his pictures of people in dance halls and cafés show how he assimilated the Post-Impressionism of Paul Gauguin and of the Symbolist painters called the Nabis. The themes he found in the work of Edgar Degas and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, as well as the style of the latter, exerted the strongest influence. Picasso's Blue Room(1901, Phillips Collection, Washington, D.C.) reflects the work of both these painters and, at the same time, shows his evolution towards the Blue Period, so called because various shades of blue, well suited to the melancholic subjects that he favoured at that time, dominated his work for the next few years(1901-1904). Expressing human misery, the paintings portray blind people, beggars, alcoholics, and prostitutes, their somewhat elongated bodies reminiscent of the style of El Greco.

IV. The Rose Period

In 1904 Picasso settled in Paris, living in a shabby building known as the Bateau-Lavoir(“laundry barge”, which it resembled). He met Fernande Olivier, the first of many companions to influence the theme, style, and mood of his work. The next year or so of his life is known as his Rose Period, when blue was replaced by pink as the predominant colour in his work. His subjects became more cheerful and included many scenes of the circus, which he frequently visited, and circus performers—bohemians outside respectable society—with whom he identified. One such painting of this period is Family of Saltimbanques(1905, National Gallery, Washington, D.C.); in the figure of the harlequin, Picasso represented his alter ego, a practice that he repeated in later works.

In 1909 Picasso moved out of the Bateau-Lavoir into an apartment with a maid. By this time he had attracted influential patrons, such as the American writer Gertrude Stein, whose portrait he painted(1906, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York), and had gained the support of the art dealer Daniel-Henri Kahnweiler, whom he met in 1907. Kahnweiler introduced Picasso to Georges Braque, another young artist whose work he handled.

V. Cubist Painting

In the summer of 1906, during a stay in Gosol, a remote Catalan village in the Pyrenees, Picasso's work entered a new phase, marked by the influence of Greek, Iberian, and African art. The key work of this early period is Les Demoiselles d'Avignon(1907, Museum of Modern Art, New York); the title comes from the name of a street in the red-light district of Barcelona and the painting depicts five prostitutes, their figures aggressively distorted and the faces of two of them recalling the African masks that Picasso admired and collected at this time. So radical in style was this picture—its surface resembling fractured glass—that it was not understood even by contemporary avant-garde painters and critics. Spatial depth is absent and the ideal form of the female nude is restructured into facets—the essential features that distinguish Cubism.

From the time of their first meeting in 1906 until the outbreak of World War I, Picasso and Braque worked closely together. Inspired by the volumetric treatment of form seen in the late work of Paul Cézanne, they began to paint landscapes in a style later described by a critic as being made of“little cubes”, thus leading to the term“Cubism”. They were concerned with breaking down and analysing form, and together they developed the first phase of Cubism, known as Analytical Cubism. Monochromatic colour schemes were favoured in their depictions of radically fragmented motifs, whose several sides were shown simultaneously. Picasso's favourite subjects were musical instruments, still-life objects, and his friends; one famous portrait is Daniel Henry Kahnweiler(1910, Art Institute of Chicago). In 1912, pasting paper and a piece of oilcloth to the canvas and combining these with painted areas, Picasso created his first collage, Still Life with Chair Caning(Musée Picasso, Paris).

The technique marked the transition to Synthetic Cubism. This second phase of Cubism is more decorative, with colour playing a major role. Picasso used Synthetic Cubism throughout his career, but by no means exclusively. Two works of 1915 demonstrate his simultaneous work in completely different styles: Harlequin(Museum of Modern Art, New York) is a Synthetic Cubist painting, whereas a fine pencil drawing of his dealer, Vollard(Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York), is executed in his Ingresque style, so called because the draughtsmanship emulates that of the 19th-century French Neo-Classical artist Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres.

VI. Cubist Sculpture

While he was creating this revolution in painting, Picasso was doing almost equally innovative work in sculpture. Traditionally there had been two approaches to sculpture—modelling(in which the form is built up from a substance such as clay) and carving(in which the form is created by removing material from a block of stone or other suitable material). Picasso changed this by putting together sculpture from pieces of commonplace material(a development of the collage elements that he sometimes included in his Cubist paintings). An example is Guitar(1912, Musée Picasso, Paris), made of cardboard, paper, and string.

Picasso's sculptures in this vein were generally small and almost in the nature of jokes, but the idea was soon taken up by other sculptors in much more ambitious form. Among them was the Russian painter and sculptor Vladimir Tatlin, who visited Picasso in 1914. Tatlin's variations on Picasso's method became the foundation of Constructivism, a major movement in abstract art.

VII. Realism and Surrealism

After the outbreak of war in 1914, Picasso continued to work in Paris. In 1917 he visited Rome with the writer Jean Cocteau to meet the Russian ballet impresario Sergei Diaghilev, whose company was preparing for a production of Parade(the storyline of which was by Cocteau and the music by Erik Satie). Picasso designed the costumes and drop curtain. One of Diaghilev's dancers, Olga Koklova, became Picasso's first wife. In a realist style, Picasso painted several portraits of her around 1917, of their son(for example, Paulo as Harlequin; 1924, Musée Picasso, Paris), and of numerous friends. The couple moved into a grand apartment in Paris and Picasso became part of the fashionable world, losing touch with his bohemian youth.

In the immediate post-war period Picasso painted for a time in a style that has been called“classical” and that marked a reaction against the experimental fervour of the pre-war years. Several of Picasso's most imposing works of this time feature monumentally powerful figures that have something of the solidity and grandeur of ancient sculptures, for example Three Women at the Spring(1921, Museum of Modern Art, New York). Others, such as The Pipes of Pan(1923, Musée Picasso, Paris), were inspired by mythology.

This serenity was short-lived, however, for in the mid-1920s Picasso became interested in Surrealism and then started painting violently expressive pictures that reflected his despair at his increasingly unhappy marriage. The Three Dancers(1925, Tate Gallery, London) is a key work in this phase of his career.

Several Cubist paintings of the early 1930s, stressing harmonious, curvilinear lines and expressing an underlying eroticism, reflect Picasso's pleasure with his newest love, Marie Thérèse Walter, who gave birth to their daughter Maïa in 1935. Marie Thérèse, frequently portrayed sleeping, was also the model for the famous Girl Before a Mirror(1932, Museum of Modern Art). In 1935 Picasso made the etching Minotauromachy, a major work combining his minotaur and bullfight themes; in it the disembowelled horse, as well as the bull, prefigure the imagery of Guernica, a painting often called the most important single work of the 20th century.

VIII. Guernica

Picasso was moved to paint Guernica shortly after German planes, acting in support of General Franco, bombarded the Basque town of Guernica on April 26, 1937, during the Spanish Civil War. Completed in less than two months, Guernica was hung in the Spanish Pavilion of the Paris International Exposition of 1937. The painting does not portray the event; rather, Picasso expressed his outrage by employing such imagery as a bull, a dying horse, a fallen warrior, a mother and dead child, a woman trapped in a burning building, another rushing into the scene, and a figure leaning from a window and holding out a lamp. Despite the complexity of its symbolism, and the impossibility of definitive interpretation, Guernica makes an overwhelming impact in its portrayal of the horrors of war. It now hangs in Madrid's museum of 20th-century art, the Reina Sofía Art Centre. Dora Maar, Picasso's companion at the time, took photographs of Guernica while the work was in progress.

IX. Later Works

Picasso remained defiantly in Paris during the German occupation of the city in World War II, but after the war he lived mainly in the South of France, in Vallauris from 1948 and at Notre-Dame-de-Vie, a villa in Mougins, from 1961 until his death. He continued to be extremely productive to the end of his long life(not least in ceramics, which he took up in 1946), but it is generally agreed that his post-war output is of lesser importance and interest than his earlier work. He died on April 8, 1973, aged 91.





1881 10月25日出生于西班牙南部的马拉加

1888/9 7/8岁在父亲(美术教师)指导下画画。

1889 8岁完成第一件油画作品,画的是斗牛士。

1895 14岁进入巴塞隆纳的隆哈美术学校,其父于该校任教。入学考试是古典艺术与静物写生,依规定可有一个月时间完成,毕加索在一天之内就完成了。

1896 15岁作品"初次领圣体"参加巴塞隆纳美术与工业展。

1897 16岁进入马德里圣费南多美术学院就读。但常不去上课,比较喜欢去"普拉多美术馆"参观。在那里,他可以接触到西班牙大师的作品:葛雷柯、委拉斯盖兹及哥雅等。作品"科学与慈善"获马德里全国美展荣誉奖,后来又在马拉加得到金牌奖。

1898 17岁经常出入"四只猫"酒馆,开始与前卫艺术圈往来。结织卡萨吉玛斯及日后成为其私人秘书的沙巴特斯。

1900 19岁在"四只猫"酒馆举行首次个展。与卡萨吉玛斯首次前往巴黎,居住于蒙马特区。

1901 20岁好友卡萨吉玛斯因失恋自杀,触发毕加索以蓝色调作画,蓝色时期开始。在弗拉画廊举行巴黎首次个展,开幕前就卖出15张画。

1902 21岁完成"蓝色自画像"。

1903 22岁完成"人生"。以浓郁的蓝色调表示贫、老与孤独的苦难。1900-1903年间三度回西班牙。

1904 23岁定居于巴黎"洗衣船"。邂逅费尔南德.奥立维并同居,常去观赏马戏团的演出,粉红色时期开始。

1905 24岁以马戏团题材创作"卖艺人家"等。画展受到重视。结识洁楚·斯坦因兄妹。

1906 25岁在罗浮宫看到伊比利亚半岛的雕塑展,印象深刻。结识野兽派大师马蒂斯。

1907 26岁创作"亚维农的少女"。到民俗博物馆看非洲雕塑。参观两个塞尚回顾展。结识布拉克。

1908 27岁布拉克第一次举行立体派画作展。

1909 28岁解析立体派开始。与布拉克成为邻居。作"费尔南德头像"。

1911 30岁首次把印刷字母放到构图中。邂逅艾娃·谷维。

1912 31岁与费尔南德分手。完成第一个拼贴作品"藤椅静物"。与布拉克合作纸贴画,发展出合成立体主义。

1915 34岁艾娃因肺结核逝世。

1917 36岁至意大利为俄罗斯芭蕾舞团作舞台设计,邂逅舞者欧嘉.科克洛瓦。

1918 37岁与欧嘉结婚。因芭蕾而与上流社会接触。与马蒂斯举行联展。

1919 38岁认识米罗。

1921 40岁长子保罗(1921-1975)出世。

1922 41岁创作"海边奔跑的两个女人"。

1924 43岁以装饰性立体派风格作许多静物画。


1925 44岁创作"舞",首次影射与欧嘉的紧张关系。参加超现实主义的首次展出。

1926 45岁以集合物手法作"吉他"系列。

1927 46岁邂逅年仅17岁的玛丽-德雷莎·华特。

1929 48岁与雕塑家贡萨列斯一起创作雕塑和铁线构成。作系列以女人头像为题的攻击性画作,显现姻婚危机。结识达利。

1931 50岁于柏吉卢城堡设立雕塑工作室。参加超现实主义于美国的首展。

1932 51岁以玛丽-德雷莎为模特儿。

1933 52岁以雕塑家工作室为题,创作蚀版画(佛拉系列版画)。费尔南德.奥立维出版回忆录。

1934 53岁创作以斗牛为题的作品。发表用织物做模型翻制的雕塑作品。

1935 54岁 6月与欧嘉及保罗分居。9月玛丽-德雷莎与毕加索的女儿玛亚出生。

1936 55岁邂逅南斯拉夫女摄影师兼画家多拉·玛尔。

1937 56岁创作"格尔尼卡"。

1939 58岁同时画玛丽-德雷莎与多拉的同姿势肖像。

1943 62岁邂逅22岁的方斯华姿·吉洛。作集合物"牛头"。

1944 63岁加入法国共产党。

1945 64岁于慕洛完成第一批石版画。

1946 65岁与方斯华姿·吉洛同居。访马蒂斯。

1947 66岁方斯华姿·吉洛生子克罗德。首次在陶艺家哈米耶工作室中制陶,至1948年共作了2000件陶艺。

1949 68岁方斯华姿·吉洛生女帕乐玛。为世界和平会议作"鸽子"石版海报。

1950 69岁获颁列宁和平奖章。

1953 72岁于玛都拉陶艺工作坊邂逅杰奎琳·洛克。

1954 73岁与方斯华姿·吉洛分手。马蒂斯逝世(毕加索曾说:"只有马蒂斯才是真正的画家")。开始创作德拉克洛瓦的"阿尔及利亚女人"变奏系列。

1955 74岁欧嘉逝世。

1956 75岁与克鲁佐共同拍摄电影"毕加索之谜"公映。写信给共产党,抗议俄罗斯入侵匈牙利。

1957 76岁画委拉斯盖兹"宫女"变奏40余张。

1959 78岁作马内"草地上的午餐"变奏系列。

1961 80岁与35岁的杰奎琳结婚。

1963 82岁绘制"画家与模特儿"系列。巴塞隆纳的毕加索美术馆开幕。布拉克逝世。

1964 83岁方斯华姿·吉洛出版回忆录,造成毕加索与克罗德及帕乐玛决裂。

1966 85岁巴黎大皇宫及小皇宫举办大型毕加索回顾展。

1970 89岁把西班牙家中保存的画作捐赠给巴塞隆纳毕加索美术馆。



1881年 10月25日毕加索出生于西班牙南部的马拉加;

















































1973年 92岁,4月8日逝世于坎城附近的幕瞻市。4月10日葬于佛文纳菊别墅花园里



李白祖籍陇西成纪(今甘肃省天水县),隋朝末年,迁徙到中亚碎叶城(今吉尔吉斯斯坦北部托克马克附近.),李白即诞生于此(另说见后)。五岁时,其家迁入绵州彰明县(今四川江油县)。二十岁时只身出川,开始了广泛漫游,南到洞庭湘江,东至吴、越,寓居在安陆(今湖北省安陆县)。他到处游历,希望结交朋友,干谒社会名流,从而得到引荐,一举登上高位,去实现政治理想和抱负。可是,十年漫游,却一事无成。他又继续北上太原、长安,东到齐、鲁各地,并寓居山东任城(今山东济宁)。这时他已结交了不少名流,创作了大量优秀诗篇,诗名满天下。天宝初年,由道士吴人筠推荐,唐玄宗召他进京,命他供奉翰林。不久,因权贵的谗悔,于天宝三、四年间(公元 744或745年),被排挤出京。此后,他在江、淮一带盘桓,思想极度烦闷。天宝十四年(公元755年)冬,安禄山叛乱,他这时正隐居庐山,适逢永王李遴的大军东下,邀李白下山入幕府。后来李遴反叛肃宗,被消灭,李白受牵连,被判处流放夜郎(今贵州省境内),中途遇赦放还,往来于浔阳(今江西九江)、宣城(今安徽宣城)等地。代宗宝应元年(公元762年),病死于安徽当涂县。李白生活在唐代极盛时期,具有“济苍生”、“安黎元”的进步理想,毕生为实现这一理想而奋斗。他的大量诗篇,既反映了那个时代的繁荣气象,也揭露和批判了统治集团的荒淫和腐败,表现出蔑视权贵,反抗传统束缚,追求自由和理想的积极精神。在艺术上,他的诗想象新奇,感情强烈,意境奇伟瑰丽,语言清新明快,形成豪放、超迈的艺术风格,达到了我国古代积极浪漫主义诗歌艺术的高峰。存诗900余首,有《李太白集》。



Notre Dame de Paris is a novel written by Victor Hugo, a French writer. It was first published on January 14, 1831.

Notre Dame de Paris tells a story that took place in France in the 15th century by means of bizarre and contrastive means: Crodd, Vice-Chairman of Notre Dame de Paris.

is respectable, has a heart of snakes and scorpions, first loves and then hates, and persecutes Esmeralda, a Giuseppe girl.

Kasimodo, an ugly and kind-hearted bell ringer, sacrificed himself to save the girl. The novel exposes the hypocrisy of religion, declares the bankruptcy of asceticism.

eulogizes the benevolence, friendship and self-sacrifice of the lower working people, and reflects Hugo's humanitarian thought.








In France, the Bourbon Dynasty, overthrown by the bourgeois revolutionary regime, was restored in 1815 with the support of foreign feudal forces.

Until 1830, the July Revolution broke out in France, ending the feudal rule of Bourbon's Restoration Dynasty.

Under the reign of the Restoration Dynasty, the French courts and churches acted in adultery and oppressed the people.

In Paris at that time, the religious forces were evil and dark, the feudal system was very cruel, and the human nature was distorted and degenerated under the oppression of feudalism.

All sectors of society, especially the lower class, are in a deeply sympathetic situation. The oppressed people rose up and fought bravely with the two forces to win the final victory.

Hugo felt the darkness and cruelty of feudal rule and created Notre Dame de Paris, reflecting real life through the Paris society in the 15th century.

The title of Notre Dame de Paris refers to Notre Dame de Paris, where the story takes place. In 1829, Victor Hugo began to create Notre Dame de Paris in order to let people know the value of this Gothic architecture.







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