Picasso, Pablo Ruiz y(1881-1973), Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, draughtsman, designer, and ceramicist who spent most of his career in France. He was the most famous and prolific artist of the 20th century and exercised enormous influence on his contemporaries.
II. Early Life and Work
Picasso was born in Málaga on October 25, 1881, the first child of a middle-class family. His father José Ruiz Blasco was a mediocre painter who earned his living as a teacher of drawing. Like many Spaniards, Picasso took his mother's family name as his surname.
Picasso showed artistic talent at an early age. His first surviving drawings were done when he was nine. By his early teens, it was clear that he was exceptionally gifted. In 1895 his family had moved to Barcelona, and from 1896 to 1897 he studied at the School of Fine Arts there. His large academic canvas Science and Charity(1897, Museo Picasso, Barcelona), depicting a doctor, a nun, and a child at a sick woman's bedside, won a gold medal when it was exhibited in Málaga. He then spent a few months at the Academy of Fine Arts in Madrid, but by this time—aged only 16—he already had his own studio in Barcelona and was eagerly experimenting with a variety of styles.
III. The Blue Period
In 1900 Picasso made his first visit to Paris, the goal of every ambitious artist, and for the next four years he divided his time between there and Barcelona. He found the bohemian street-life of Paris fascinating, and his pictures of people in dance halls and cafés show how he assimilated the Post-Impressionism of Paul Gauguin and of the Symbolist painters called the Nabis. The themes he found in the work of Edgar Degas and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, as well as the style of the latter, exerted the strongest influence. Picasso's Blue Room(1901, Phillips Collection, Washington, D.C.) reflects the work of both these painters and, at the same time, shows his evolution towards the Blue Period, so called because various shades of blue, well suited to the melancholic subjects that he favoured at that time, dominated his work for the next few years(1901-1904). Expressing human misery, the paintings portray blind people, beggars, alcoholics, and prostitutes, their somewhat elongated bodies reminiscent of the style of El Greco.
IV. The Rose Period
In 1904 Picasso settled in Paris, living in a shabby building known as the Bateau-Lavoir(“laundry barge”, which it resembled). He met Fernande Olivier, the first of many companions to influence the theme, style, and mood of his work. The next year or so of his life is known as his Rose Period, when blue was replaced by pink as the predominant colour in his work. His subjects became more cheerful and included many scenes of the circus, which he frequently visited, and circus performers—bohemians outside respectable society—with whom he identified. One such painting of this period is Family of Saltimbanques(1905, National Gallery, Washington, D.C.); in the figure of the harlequin, Picasso represented his alter ego, a practice that he repeated in later works.
In 1909 Picasso moved out of the Bateau-Lavoir into an apartment with a maid. By this time he had attracted influential patrons, such as the American writer Gertrude Stein, whose portrait he painted(1906, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York), and had gained the support of the art dealer Daniel-Henri Kahnweiler, whom he met in 1907. Kahnweiler introduced Picasso to Georges Braque, another young artist whose work he handled.
V. Cubist Painting
In the summer of 1906, during a stay in Gosol, a remote Catalan village in the Pyrenees, Picasso's work entered a new phase, marked by the influence of Greek, Iberian, and African art. The key work of this early period is Les Demoiselles d'Avignon(1907, Museum of Modern Art, New York); the title comes from the name of a street in the red-light district of Barcelona and the painting depicts five prostitutes, their figures aggressively distorted and the faces of two of them recalling the African masks that Picasso admired and collected at this time. So radical in style was this picture—its surface resembling fractured glass—that it was not understood even by contemporary avant-garde painters and critics. Spatial depth is absent and the ideal form of the female nude is restructured into facets—the essential features that distinguish Cubism.
From the time of their first meeting in 1906 until the outbreak of World War I, Picasso and Braque worked closely together. Inspired by the volumetric treatment of form seen in the late work of Paul Cézanne, they began to paint landscapes in a style later described by a critic as being made of“little cubes”, thus leading to the term“Cubism”. They were concerned with breaking down and analysing form, and together they developed the first phase of Cubism, known as Analytical Cubism. Monochromatic colour schemes were favoured in their depictions of radically fragmented motifs, whose several sides were shown simultaneously. Picasso's favourite subjects were musical instruments, still-life objects, and his friends; one famous portrait is Daniel Henry Kahnweiler(1910, Art Institute of Chicago). In 1912, pasting paper and a piece of oilcloth to the canvas and combining these with painted areas, Picasso created his first collage, Still Life with Chair Caning(Musée Picasso, Paris).
The technique marked the transition to Synthetic Cubism. This second phase of Cubism is more decorative, with colour playing a major role. Picasso used Synthetic Cubism throughout his career, but by no means exclusively. Two works of 1915 demonstrate his simultaneous work in completely different styles: Harlequin(Museum of Modern Art, New York) is a Synthetic Cubist painting, whereas a fine pencil drawing of his dealer, Vollard(Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York), is executed in his Ingresque style, so called because the draughtsmanship emulates that of the 19th-century French Neo-Classical artist Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres.
VI. Cubist Sculpture
While he was creating this revolution in painting, Picasso was doing almost equally innovative work in sculpture. Traditionally there had been two approaches to sculpture—modelling(in which the form is built up from a substance such as clay) and carving(in which the form is created by removing material from a block of stone or other suitable material). Picasso changed this by putting together sculpture from pieces of commonplace material(a development of the collage elements that he sometimes included in his Cubist paintings). An example is Guitar(1912, Musée Picasso, Paris), made of cardboard, paper, and string.
Picasso's sculptures in this vein were generally small and almost in the nature of jokes, but the idea was soon taken up by other sculptors in much more ambitious form. Among them was the Russian painter and sculptor Vladimir Tatlin, who visited Picasso in 1914. Tatlin's variations on Picasso's method became the foundation of Constructivism, a major movement in abstract art.
VII. Realism and Surrealism
After the outbreak of war in 1914, Picasso continued to work in Paris. In 1917 he visited Rome with the writer Jean Cocteau to meet the Russian ballet impresario Sergei Diaghilev, whose company was preparing for a production of Parade(the storyline of which was by Cocteau and the music by Erik Satie). Picasso designed the costumes and drop curtain. One of Diaghilev's dancers, Olga Koklova, became Picasso's first wife. In a realist style, Picasso painted several portraits of her around 1917, of their son(for example, Paulo as Harlequin; 1924, Musée Picasso, Paris), and of numerous friends. The couple moved into a grand apartment in Paris and Picasso became part of the fashionable world, losing touch with his bohemian youth.
In the immediate post-war period Picasso painted for a time in a style that has been called“classical” and that marked a reaction against the experimental fervour of the pre-war years. Several of Picasso's most imposing works of this time feature monumentally powerful figures that have something of the solidity and grandeur of ancient sculptures, for example Three Women at the Spring(1921, Museum of Modern Art, New York). Others, such as The Pipes of Pan(1923, Musée Picasso, Paris), were inspired by mythology.
This serenity was short-lived, however, for in the mid-1920s Picasso became interested in Surrealism and then started painting violently expressive pictures that reflected his despair at his increasingly unhappy marriage. The Three Dancers(1925, Tate Gallery, London) is a key work in this phase of his career.
Several Cubist paintings of the early 1930s, stressing harmonious, curvilinear lines and expressing an underlying eroticism, reflect Picasso's pleasure with his newest love, Marie Thérèse Walter, who gave birth to their daughter Maïa in 1935. Marie Thérèse, frequently portrayed sleeping, was also the model for the famous Girl Before a Mirror(1932, Museum of Modern Art). In 1935 Picasso made the etching Minotauromachy, a major work combining his minotaur and bullfight themes; in it the disembowelled horse, as well as the bull, prefigure the imagery of Guernica, a painting often called the most important single work of the 20th century.
Picasso was moved to paint Guernica shortly after German planes, acting in support of General Franco, bombarded the Basque town of Guernica on April 26, 1937, during the Spanish Civil War. Completed in less than two months, Guernica was hung in the Spanish Pavilion of the Paris International Exposition of 1937. The painting does not portray the event; rather, Picasso expressed his outrage by employing such imagery as a bull, a dying horse, a fallen warrior, a mother and dead child, a woman trapped in a burning building, another rushing into the scene, and a figure leaning from a window and holding out a lamp. Despite the complexity of its symbolism, and the impossibility of definitive interpretation, Guernica makes an overwhelming impact in its portrayal of the horrors of war. It now hangs in Madrid's museum of 20th-century art, the Reina Sofía Art Centre. Dora Maar, Picasso's companion at the time, took photographs of Guernica while the work was in progress.
IX. Later Works
Picasso remained defiantly in Paris during the German occupation of the city in World War II, but after the war he lived mainly in the South of France, in Vallauris from 1948 and at Notre-Dame-de-Vie, a villa in Mougins, from 1961 until his death. He continued to be extremely productive to the end of his long life(not least in ceramics, which he took up in 1946), but it is generally agreed that his post-war output is of lesser importance and interest than his earlier work. He died on April 8, 1973, aged 91.
1935 54岁 6月与欧嘉及保罗分居。9月玛丽-德雷莎与毕加索的女儿玛亚出生。
Notre Dame de Paris is a novel written by Victor Hugo, a French writer. It was first published on January 14, 1831.
Notre Dame de Paris tells a story that took place in France in the 15th century by means of bizarre and contrastive means: Crodd, Vice-Chairman of Notre Dame de Paris.
is respectable, has a heart of snakes and scorpions, first loves and then hates, and persecutes Esmeralda, a Giuseppe girl.
Kasimodo, an ugly and kind-hearted bell ringer, sacrificed himself to save the girl. The novel exposes the hypocrisy of religion, declares the bankruptcy of asceticism.
eulogizes the benevolence, friendship and self-sacrifice of the lower working people, and reflects Hugo's humanitarian thought.
In France, the Bourbon Dynasty, overthrown by the bourgeois revolutionary regime, was restored in 1815 with the support of foreign feudal forces.
Until 1830, the July Revolution broke out in France, ending the feudal rule of Bourbon's Restoration Dynasty.
Under the reign of the Restoration Dynasty, the French courts and churches acted in adultery and oppressed the people.
In Paris at that time, the religious forces were evil and dark, the feudal system was very cruel, and the human nature was distorted and degenerated under the oppression of feudalism.
All sectors of society, especially the lower class, are in a deeply sympathetic situation. The oppressed people rose up and fought bravely with the two forces to win the final victory.
Hugo felt the darkness and cruelty of feudal rule and created Notre Dame de Paris, reflecting real life through the Paris society in the 15th century.
The title of Notre Dame de Paris refers to Notre Dame de Paris, where the story takes place. In 1829, Victor Hugo began to create Notre Dame de Paris in order to let people know the value of this Gothic architecture.